• Ciprofloxacin


    Generic Cipro is produced in 2 forms:


    1) Tablets, each pill contains 250 / 500 / 750 / 1000 mg of ciprofloxacin (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride as an active substance) and excipients: corn starch, sodium starch glycolate, talc, magnesium stearate, colloidal anhydrous silica, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (hpmc), titanium dioxide, pro-pylene glycol. This form of a drug is used as an antimicrobial agent for systemic use. It inhibits the growth of microorganisms that cause infections in various systems of a human body.


    2) Eye and ear drops 0.3% colorless or slightly yellow solution, with the trade name - Ciplox Drops - antibacterial drug of fluoroquinolone group designed for a local use in ophthalmology and ENT practice. It’s mostly produced in 5ml dropper bottle. The most trusted producers are Cipla / Zen, the solution is also knows as Ziflox / Cetraxal / Ciloxan / Cipro.


    That’s how it works

    By antibacterial multiplicity of action ciprofloxacin is principally analogous to other fluoroquinolones, but it has comparatively high activity; it is about 3-8 times more fast-acting than norfloxacin. The drug is more effective when it is taken by mouth, especially on an empty stomach. The Cmax is achieved within 1-2 hours after an oral intake and 30 minutes after intravenous. The half-life of the drug is about 4 hours. It penetrates into the organs and tissues, it passes through the barrier between blood and brain tissue. About 40% of the medicine is excreted with the urine in an unchanged form within 24 hours.


    Indications

    As a tablet or solution for injection this rx drug is aimed to treat:


  • 1) respiratory tract infections;
  • 2) skin and soft tissues infections;
  • 3) infections of bones and joints;
  • 4) infections of the gastrointestinal tract, including infections caused by salmonella, shigella, cam-pylobacter and other pathogens;
  • 5) gonococcal infections, meningitis / inflammation of the meninges;
  • 6) postoperative infectious complications, sepsis / septicemia microbes from home purulent in-flammation and other suppurative-inflammatory processes;
  • 7) urinary tract infections;
  • 8) infections in patients with cancer.
  • In ophthalmology

  • 1) Acute and sub-acute conjunctivitis;
  • 2) Blepharitis;
  • 3) Blepharoconjunctivitis;
  • 4) Keratitis;
  • 5) Keratoconjunctivitis;
  • 6) Bacterial corneal ulcer;
  • 7) Chronic dacryocystitis;
  • 8) Meybomit (barley);
  • 9) Infections of the eye after the injury or the ingress of foreign bodies;
  • 10) Preoperative and postoperative prophylaxis of infectious complications in ophthalmic sur-gery.
  • In otorhinolaryngology

  • 1) Otitis externa;
  • 2) Treatment of postoperative infectious complications.
  • Side effects

    Generally the drug is well tolerated. But in some cases, there may occur an impact on:


  • - digestive system: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, increased liver transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, LDH, bilirubin, pseudomembranous colitis, lack of appetite, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea;
  • - allergic reactions: itching, hives, angioedema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, arthralgias, possible development of edema face, vocal cords; ;
  • - urinary system: crystalluria, glomerulonephritis, dysuria, polyuria, albuminuria, hematuria, transi-ent increase in serum creatinine;
  • - CNS: headache, dizziness, fatigue, sleep disturbances, nightmares, hallucinations, fainting, visual disturbances, anxiety, general depression;
  • - hematopoietic system: eosinophilia, leukopenia, neutropenia, changes in the number of platelets;
  • - reactions related to chemotherapeutic action: candidiasis;
  • - cardiovascular system: tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, hypotension;
  • - the perception of smell and taste, which become disrupted in rare cases;
  • - soreness and redness of the conjunctiva, in case of using eye drops.
  • Contraindications

  • 1) Hypersensitivity to quinolones, epilepsy.
  • 2) Pregnancy, lactation.
  • 3) Children and adolescents with incomplete formation of the skeleton (15 years).
  • 4) Impaired renal function. But the appointment of the drug is possible in some cases, only at first, the usual dosage is given and then the dosage should be reduced due to creatinine clearance.
  • During the use of generic cipro, as well as other fluoroquinolones, you should escape of ultraviolet rays due to possible photosensitivity (increasing sensitivity to sunlight) of the skin.
  • Do not take ciprofloxacin concurrently with reducing gastric acidity agents (including alkaline water) in order to avoid the loss of efficacy.


    In case of taking ciprofloxacin and didanosine simultaneously, the absorption of ciprofloxacin is reduced.


    The usage of generic cipro in conjunction with warfarin increases the risk of bleeding.


    You may experience a decrease of reaction especially in case of taking cipro simultaneously with alcohol.